Statistics is a well-known discipline of mathematics used to analyze data. Statistical approaches are created to study huge quantitative data and their properties.


Several companies utilize various statistical models to create individual or staff reports. In the next paragraphs, we shall explore various statistical terms.


To begin, one must understand the difference between sample data and population data.




A sample is a subset of a population, whereas a population is a whole group of items or individuals.


The features of a sample are called statistics, whereas those of a population are called parameters.


Biostatistics studies statistics for biological, scientific, public health, and medical applications.


Its main goal is to apply statistical methods to learn about parameters that affect human health.


What is data?


Statistics is the study of data analysis, presentation, gathering, interpretation, organization, and visualization. It is a function of the input data.


That is why statistics is used to classify, present, gather, and organize numerical data.


It also helps understand the data and estimate the possibilities for future applications.


It is possible to use statistics to determine different measures of central data and their variations.


Before moving on to advanced statistical terms, let’s review basic statistical terms like population and sample.


Take a quiz about population and sample!!!


Choose a population and a sample from the




In administrative elections, 1,500–2,500 voters were polled. The survey is supposed to represent all voters in the country.


Population: All eligible voters in the country (1,500-2,500).




A car manufacturer wanted to know if more than 60% of American drivers possess a car. The manufacturer polled 15,000 US drivers.


15,000 private car drivers were questioned, representing the whole American population.




Assume you have to compute the average grade point in a class. It is better to pick students who come to school. The data acquired from a specific sample might represent the students’ average grade point.




Population: Number of students in the school.




The annual housing income in Houston must be more than the national average. The city collects data from 2,000 households.


Population: Numbers of households in Houston city.


What are the statistical variable types?


Types of (qualitative)










Graphing data










Identify the major terms used in the following studies.




A survey (at an American college) found that the average cumulative GPA of seniors is 3.65, 1.50, 2.80, 3.90. Term check










Number of last year’s college graduates (Selection- randomly).


Students that attended all college classes last year.


4, 3, 2, 2, 3.65, 3.90.


Variable: Last year’s college graduates’ average cumulative GPA.


Statistics: One student’s cumulative GPA from last year.


Parameter: Last year’s college graduates’ average cumulative GPA.




You need to know how much money first-year students spend on college supplies, excluding books. You investigate 500 first-year college students at random. Three students each spent $200, $150, and $225. Term check










500 first-year students from XYZ college.


Total first-year students at XYZ College.


$200, $150, and $225


A first-year student’s XYZ College supply budget, excluding books.


Average amount spent on college goods by 500 students, excluding books.


Average amount spent on college supplies, excluding books.




The NTSB obtained and examined data pertaining to the consequences of automobiles crashed over the tested dummies. Here is the criterion they used:


Location of “dummies” (when the automobiles crashed)


35 mph Front Seat


The front seat dummies were smashed into the wall at 35mph. Now we need to know how many dummies experienced head injuries. We sampled about 75 automobiles.










75 automobiles were chosen at random.


All autos have dummies in the front seat.


Data: Some had a head injury, some didn’t.


The number of dummies who had significant head injuries.


The percentage of driver dummies who suffered head injuries in the samples.


The fraction of driver dummies that suffered significant head injuries.


What does the word study analysis mean in statistics?


Analytic statistics is the study of quantitative data.


It can hold all components of acquired data that require arranging data gathering based on experiment and survey framework. Statistics analysis is used to calculate and portray data.


There are three forms of statistical analysis:






There are three sorts of errors that might occur in an experiment: measurement, design, and analysis.


The margin of error can either underestimate or overestimate the parameters. These three errors are:




For example, it can misspell everything on the floor.




Describing stats


The average or standard deviation is used to judge the data in descriptive statistics.


It is the most fascinating method to gather data in columns or levels of parameters. Descriptive statistics show the differences and similarities among the collected data.


It may characterize the acquired data with tables, graphs, and numbers.


Location Metric


Average of the provided data.


Median: The data’s center.


The most frequent value points.


Spread Metric


Standard deviation: The range of data acquired in an experiment.


Interquartile Range: The range of data obtained between 75% and 25%.


Range: The difference between the two numbers.






Statistical inference




See also What is Probability and Probability Types.




Once the data is studied, one must decide which approach to utilize to analyze, illustrate, and summarize the data.


To analyze the required relationship between the given data, numerous statistical techniques are applied.


It summarizes the population standard based on the sample values:


A mix of standard error and sample statistics is used to predict bigger population parameters.






Non-parametric (no assumed distribution) or parametric (no assumed distribution) (normally distributed).


For example, there are several types of statistical tests such as ANOVA and z-test.


What is study design in statistical terms?


Type of Research



Observation and analysis of the current situation.





To test the effect of specific circumstances on the outcome of an interest, cohorts are employed to investigate the instruction or step of a group of like people.



The analysts allocate the responsibility of treating the groups at random.






The scientific questions are predicted in depth and tested:




If the null function is true, then a P-value shows the difference between the comparisons.


Why do we need samples?


To find a statistical difference between the set of the group when they are biologically diverse, statistical terms are used.







Let’s review all the statistical terms we’ve discussed previously!!


Population – All objects, individuals, or measures studied.


A variable is a characteristic of an object or person in a population.


A sample is a subset of a population.


In data, there are two types: quantitative (a trait shown by a number series) and qualitative (a trait indicated by a sequence of words) (a trait that is indicated using a label).


Parameter- A number used to describe a difficult to ascertain population trait.


A statistic measures a similar population parameter.


Between zero and one, probability includes the likelihood of an event occurring.




This blog has explained the essential statistical terms required to analyze huge qualitative data.


This includes the statistical variables, study designs, and statistical analysis.


You can readily grasp where and when to apply these terminology.


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Questions & Answers


What are the statistical definitions?


1: Statistics is the study of numerical data masses and their collection, analysis, description, and display.


2: Statistics collects quantitative data.


Are statistics useful?


Statistics is utilized in robotics, data science, business, weather forecasting, sports, and many other areas.